Dizziness—and the balance problems that may come with it—can be caused by a number of factors:
Inner ear disorders (“vestibular disorders”) such as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo
Injury or trauma to the inner ear
Diseases such as arthritis or diabetes
Brain disorders such as Parkinson disease or stroke
Conditions such as low blood pressure
Use of certain medications
How Does it Feel?
Some people have a spinning sensation (“vertigo,”) which happens when you change the position of your head). Others have a general feeling of unsteadiness, a rocking sensation as if on a boat, or as “lightheadedness.” Dizziness can result in:
Decreased ability to concentrate
Above all, dizziness can increase the risk for falls, which can be a serious health concern among older adults.
The earlier you get treatment, the better. That’s because your brain and inner ears are more likely to be able to work together during the early stages, so that’s when you have your best chance for full recovery.
How Can a Physical Therapist Help?
The good news: most dizziness and balance disorders can be successfully treated—and they are not an “inevitable” part of aging. Your physical therapist can perform tests to determine the causes and also to assess your risk of falling. Often, there is more than one reason for dizziness and falls in the same person. Depending on the results of the tests, your therapist may recommend further testing or consultation with your physician.
Based on your physical therapist’s evaluation and your goals for recovery, the therapist will customize a treatment plan for you. Your therapist’s main focus is to help you get moving again and manage the dizziness at the same time. Exercise and new ways to perform daily activities are the primary treatments.
During your recovery, your physical therapist will teach you strategies to help you cope with your symptoms:
Do certain activities or chores around the house cause you to become dizzy? Your therapist will show you how to do those activities in a different way to help reduce the dizziness.
Have simple activities become difficult and cause fatigue and more dizziness? Your therapist will help you work through these symptoms right away so you can get moving again and return to your roles at home and at work more quickly.
Physical therapy treatments for dizziness can take many forms. The type of exercise that your therapist designs for you will depend on your unique problems and might include exercises to improve your balance, to improve your ability to focus your eyes and vision, and to “correct” differences between your brain and your inner ears. The inner ears tell the brain how the body is moving in relation to gravity. They also communicate information about head motion, which is used to coordinate eye motion.
In addition to those exercises, your physical therapist might prescribe exercises to improve your strength, your flexibility, and your heart health—with the goal of improving your overall physical health and well-being.